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Vol. II. S/fA 7X1 I AK RAN I RO PA/VA of Punzananda 
SvA.m1, with Commentary of KAlichara/m and notes by 
Shano-kara. PADU KAPANCH AK A, with Commen- 
tary of Kalicharawa. With these are notes from the Tika 
of Vishvanatha on the Second Pa/ala of Kaivalya Kalika 



Vol. V. KULARA^AVA TANTRA. (Shortly out). 

Vol. VI. IvALIVILASA TANTRA. (In the press). 

Vol. VII. TANTRARAjA TANTRA. (In the press). 


WvtiNkNA TANTRA). A Translation from the Sans- 
krit, with Introduction and Commentary. 

Vols. I and II. 

(SUA TCHAKRANIRU PA N A). < (In the press ). 


TANTRA). (In preparation ). 


HYMNS TO THE GODDESS (from the Tantra and other 
Shastra and Stotra of Shangkaracharyya). 


P, 2 1. 12. 

It has been suggested to me by Dr. Otto Schrader that 
in Ch. II 25 is a mistake in the manuscript for either ^f|^ or 
more probably for f^Bf. This criticism seems correct for there 
is no reason why the twice-born castes should be excluded. 
Moreover all the other nouns are in the dative as f%if is. 
According to this reading Kaula knowledge is to be kept from 
inimical persons not " persons of the twice-born caste " as stated 
in Sj. A. K. Maitra's Introduction. 

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in 2011 with funding from 
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This first edition of the hitherto unpublished KulachiV&m- 
iim has been prepared with the help of manuscripts (marked m 
and t§) collected by the Varendra Anusandhana Samiti of Raj- 
shahi from reputed centres of Tantrika worship in Bengal. 
The text has been compared in several cases with other manus- 
cripts access to which was given by Tantrika "Gurus to the 
travelling Pandit of the Samiti. The work consists of seven 
Pa/alas (chapters). 

This Tantra is of a different type from that published in 
the last volume. 

The KulachtWama^i-tantra or "crest-jewel" of the Kula- 
chara division of Tantrika Sadhakas is included in the list of 
revealed works, which, according- to the Vamakeshvara Tantra, 
are considered to be the chief amongst those which deal with 
the worship of Shakti. It is accordingly found frequently 
referred to as an authority in many compilations though the 
Rulachurtamawi itself (II. 8) refers us, for all technical terms, to 
the Bhairavi Tantra, which is, however now known chiefly 
from quotations made from it. 

Like all original works on Tantrika worship, the Kula- 
ichurt&maf/i is cast in the form of a dialogue — the Shastra being- 
revealed by the Devi in Her form as Bhairavi, in answer to 
questions put to Her by Shiva in His form as Bhairava. For 
this reason the book is included in the class which goes by the 
name of Nigama as opposed to Agama, in which the Shastra 
is revealed by Shiva Himself. The form in which a Shastra 
is presented whether as the Revelation of Shiva or Shakti is 
mere Lil&. Since Shiva and Shakti are one and the same and 
it is Shiva who reveals. Shiva is the revealer of the Shastra 
in all cases, though in some He figures as Shi^ya and in 
others as Guru. The Svachchhanda Tantra puts this clearly in 
the following verse : 

Guru-shi^yapade sthitva svayameva mahesvara// 
Prashnottara-padair vakyaistantrang samavatArayat 



The Tantra according to this verse, \v;is originally revealed 
I))- Mahesvara (Shiva) who Himself stood for that purpose in 
the: position of the Guru as well as that of the Slmviya. This 
is also stated in the last chapter (VII. 79) (if the KulachiW/4- 
mawi where the Devi addressing Her Lord says :— 

Gunistvam sarvatantr;i//am. 

Kulachara has been called a secret doctrine and practice. 
The Bhairavi in discoursing" of it in the KulachiWamawi sa)'s at 
the outset (I. 31) that it had not been told to Vis/etm nor to 
Brahma nor to Ga//apa. 

Kaula knowledge, says the text (II. 25) must not be di- 
vulged to atheists, fools. Pashus, or to persons of the twice- 
born caste. The secret teaching appears to have been trans- 
mitted for a long time " from mouth to mouth " (Yaktrat 
vaktrantaram) and even when it came in part to be reduced 
into writing, sufficient precaution was taken to conceal it 
from the uninitiated under technical terms, the import of 
which could only be learnt from the Guru. The general fea- 
tures may, however, be summed up as follows. 

Although the word Kula in ordinary parlance means a 
family or clan, its technical sense has been defined by the 
Tararahasyavr/ttika to be "Kulam = matr/-mana-meyam." The 
term thus combines the meaning of the three other words which 
are further explained to mean Jiva (Mata) Jn&na (Manam) 
and the manifold universe or Vishva (Meyam). The gist (Sang- 
kalitartha) therefore is said to be Shakti. As Shakti is Kula 
so Shiva (as distinguished from Shakti) is spoken of as Akula. 
Kulachara is one of the seven Acharas enumerated by the 
Kular//ava one of the leading Tantras of the division of Sadha- 
kas of this school called Kaulas. According to the last named 
Tantra it occupies the highest rank. "The Vaidikachara" it says, 
"is no doubt higher than all, but Vai^z/avachara is higher than 
Vaidikachara; Shaivachara is higher than Vai.?/«/avachara ; 
Dak\?/^i;/achara is higher than Shaivachara ; Yamachara is 
higher than Dak^i;zachara ; Siddhantachara is higher than the 
last and Kulachara is superior to all." 

As Kulachara is thus said to be the highest of the Acharas, 
only those Sadhaka^ are qualified therefor who in this or ano- 
ther birth have graduated in the preceding Acharas which are 
regarded as stepping stones to it. Such a Sadhaka is called 
Kaulika or Kulina. Being the final stage of Sadhana this 


Aclwa knows no destinction, of race, colour, caste, or sect. 
But the esoteric character of its doctrine and practice is such 
that it was never meant for the ordinary man of the world. 
On the contrary the difficulties of its true practice are said to 
be such that according to the doctrine " it is easier to walk on 
a drawn sword," than to be a true Kaula. It is expressly 
stated (I 42) that the Adhikfiri must be a Kulma that is one 
who is capable of realizing that every person, thing, and act is 
a manifestation of the Mother or Shakti jStrimayancha jagat- 
sarvam). An essential feature of this Achara is the attain- 
ment of the knowledge that the Mother who is worshipped 
under different forms as Tripura, Kalika and so forth with 
differing rituals is She from whom all creation proceeds and 
who is all in all. This is very aptly set forth in the text (I. 24) 
which says " Oh All-knowing One if Thou knowest Me then 
of what use are the Amnayas (revealed teachings) and Yajanam 
(sacrifices : ritual). If Thou knowest Me not, then of what use- 
are Amnaya and Yajanam." 

Yadi mfing viddhi sarvajna kva chamnayai kva yajanam. 
Na viddhi mang chet sarvajna kva chanmaya/j kva yajanam. 

This teaching has found its way into popular Bengali songs 
which say. 

" Tell me what will japa, tapa, yoga and yaga do for a man 
in whom Kulaku^alini awakens and for the man in whom She 
awakens not." Supremacy is claimed for Kulachara on the 
ground that it is the final stage of Saxlhana in which Knowledge 
is realised to be superior to ritual. Kuladharma is accord- 
ingly said to weigh more than all Yajnas and Vratas put to- 
gether in the scale against it though such rituals are necessary 
in the preliminary Acharas which qualify for the last. As J nana 
alone secures liberation the Kular#ava Tantra affirms that 
without Kuladharma liberation is not possible. With the 
question whether this claim is well founded I am not con- 
cerned but with the statement of the historical facts. As being 
the Achara which is claimed to be at the entry of liberation it is 
regarded by K aulas as supreme and the end for those which 
precede it. Other schools take a different view of the Kaula 


The book opens with an enumeration of the K ula-sundaris 
or Devis who are said to be innumerable, under the names of 
TripurA. KAlikA. V.'igishvari, Sukula, KulA, M atanggini, Pun/A, 
YimalA, Chaw/anAyikA, Hkaja/A, Durga and others. Several 
doctrines also such as Vai^wava, G«u/apatya and others are 

The names of a number of Tantras belonging to the sixty- 
four are next given. A complete list has been quoted in the 
footnotes (pages 2 — 3) from the YAmakeshvara-tantra, according 
to which each of the eight Bhairavas has a Tantra of his own, 
all of which are collectively known as the BhairavAji/akam. 
Similarly the Tantras relating to the seven MAtr/kAs and the 
Shivadutis are collectively called BahunipA-f^/akam. The 
YAmalas are eight in number. These three classes give us 24 
works, while the rest are those named in the list. 

The 64 Tantras given in the Vamakeshvara are as follows: — 

1 M ah am ay & 

*2 Shambara 

3 Y oginij Ala-sham bara 

4 Tattva-shambara 

5 — 12 Bhairava^/aka — (a) AsitAngga 

13 — 20 Bahurt\pA^/aka — the eight Tantras of the seven 

MAtr/kA-y and Shivadutis 
21 — 28 Yamala^/aka — (a) Brahmayamala 











(6) Vij/wuyamala 
(c) Rudrayamala 

(d) Lak^miyAmala 

(e) Umayamala 


(/) Skandayamala — (Bhaskara 

substitutes Jayadrathayamala) 

(g) Ga«eshayamala 
(k) Grahayamala 

*2 9 




*; 5 o 


* 5 o 






3 2 





















57(#) Purvamnaya 



(d) Pashchimamnfiya 



(c) Dak^i«amnaya 



(z/) Uttaramnaya 












J nanar/zava 














K ulozzVisha 



* 4 s 


It has not been found possible to identify with certainty all 
items in the list oiven in this work with that of the Vamakesh- 
vara and in some respects the list differs. If, however, we take 
Mayottara, Kalapaka or Kalapada, Sarvajnanatmaka and 
Vishudeshvara which occur in the Kulachuzramazzi to refer to 
items 1, 36. 48 and 64 respectively of the Vamakeshvara list 
then the two lists correspond except as to the 9 items marked 
with an asterisk. In the place of these last the present work 
appears to <^ive the names of the following Tantras : — Maha- 
sarasvata, Tantrajnana, Vasuki, Mahfisammohana, Maha- 
suta/zma, Vahana, Vahanottara, Mat/'/bheda. Vishvatmaka. 
Shivavali. If however we thus count' them we get 10 Tantras 
or one too many. Possibly MahasuloVzma may be part of the 
title of the Vahana Tantra which succeeds it, in which case it 
may be eliminated. 


The Bhairava then says thai lie knows all these Kula- 
sundaris, doctrines, and Tantras hut has nevertheless not 
attained hliss (Ananda). lie asks the Bhairavi why this is so? 

In reply the Bhairavi first gives some general philosophical 
instruction in eleven verses (I. 16-26) to the Bhairava whom 
She addresses as the most Supreme Kula the ocean of Tantrika 
Kula knowledge (TantrajnAnakular;/ava) which, since He 
apparently seeks instruction, has for the moment heen obscured 
by Her Maya. This portion may be divided into three sec- 
tions. The first (vv. 16-17) refers to that primordial state 
when She as Prakr/ti was bidden in ChidAnanda (Ahang Prakr/- 
tinipa chech chidAnandapantya/m ). In this state there is 
neither creation, maintenance or destruction ; neither Brahma. 
I lari or Shambhu or other Devas ; neither attachment, suffer- 
ing" nor liberation ; neither piety. Theism, or Atheism. Japa. 
Guru or Shuviya. 

The second state (vv. 17-24) is that in which the Devi 
covering Herself with Her own MayA becomes desirous of 
creation (Unmukhi) and threefold. Then joyful in the mad 
delight which comes of Her union with the Supreme Akula 
She becomes Vikari/n ; that is the Vikaras or Tattvas arise in 

Mayayachchhadya chatmanang tridha bhiitva yadonmukhi 
Parakularasonmadamodini cha vikari/n 

At this second stage Brahma. Hari. Shambhu appear and 
with them the Worlds (Loka) and the Elements (Panchabh titan i) 
of which they are composed. By the differentiation of Shiva 
and Shakti the Guuas commence to operate (Shivashakti-pra- 
bhedena gu//otpattistu jayate). Brahma and the others are not 
distinct entities. They are all one and the same as parts of 
Her. The creation which is Matratmaka appears and then 
disappears in Pralaya. 

In the third section (vv. 24-26) the Devi teaches the great 
lesson that all scripture and ritual are unneeded where She is 
known ; as they are unneeded where She is not known. For 
scriptural teaching- is a means to an end ; — knowledge of Her. 
It therefore has no use where She is known. If on the other 
hand religious disposition is wholly wanting these means alone 
will not evoke it. though they are not without their uses in 
educating a latent piety in the disciple. The Bhairavi then 
says " I manifest myself as woman (that is in female form or 


Shakti) which is my own Self and the very essence of creation 
(Narinipang samfisthaya s77>///is&ram madatmakam) in order to 
know Thee Bhairava, the Guru who art united with Me 
(Bhavayogastham)". She adds that even when all this is said 
Her Tattva is not known. 

The Devi then speaks of the methods (Upaya) of attaining 
liberation which is the essence of all Tantras and is honoured 
by all DevatAs. These means secure knowledge and awaken 
Tattvabodha. They destroy both merit and demerit and 
(v. 29) give both enjoyment and liberation (Bhogamuktiprad- 
Ayakam). This doctrine is said to have been kept as a pro- 
found secret so that it had not been divulged even to Vis/imi, 
Brahma nor Gawapa. It should be concealed in the heart 
(Gopantyantu hr/daye). " This wonderful secret, my child, 
should be kept from Pashus" (v. 40. Rahasyam adbhutang vatsa 
goptavyam pashushangka/e). The Devi speaking of this doc- 
trine thus addresses the Bhairava " Child (Vatsa) it strikes me 
with wonder and bewilders even the wise. It is replete with 
numerous and bewildering meanings and is the final resting 
place of all good disciples (Sachchlm//ya-param&spadam). It is 
Sadachara according to all doctrines (Sarvavadisadachara) 
and is at the same time blamed or reprobated by all doctrines 
(Sarvavadivigarhita). It can be learnt only from a good 
teacher (SadAcharyyaparijnaptam). Follow it with care." 

To begin with, the Devi speaks of the necessity for the 
acquisition of J nanashuddhi, the purification of knowledge, and 
for this purpose She refers to the daily observances beginning 
with the morning rites. The Sadhaka should rise in the morn- 
ing, make his PriwAma to the Kula trees (Kulavr/k.sV/a), and 
contemplate upon the Kula (Shakti) from the Muladhara to the 
Brahmarandhra and meditate on the Guru. 

The Kulavr/k.f//as according to the K&meshvara Tantra are 
Shlesmataka, Karanja, Nimba, Ashvattha, Kadamba, Vilva, 
Va/a, Ashoka(i). The Tararahasyavr/ttika quoting the above 
verse from the K&meshvara Tantra adds that the above are those 
usually enumerated but that a ninth is added by some namely 
the Chincha. The printed Tantrasdra however gives a list 
of ten trees viz. % the first seven mentioned together with 

( 1 ) Shleslimatakakaraiijilkhyaninihashvattlinkaclanihaka// 
Vilvo va/o 'pyashnkashclia itya.f///au kulapddapd/;. 


Uz/umbara, Dlrtlri, and Chinchft(i ). I'Vom whic h it would appear 
that whilst Shlrshmataka, Karanja, Vilva, Ashvattha. Kadamba, 
Nimba and Va/a arc generally recognised as Kula trees, U//mn- 
bara, I )hitn, Chinch.!, and Ashoka are only exceptionally so. 
'['hen follows the mental worship of the eight Kulanathas, namely 
Prahladananda, Sanakananda, Kumar&nanda, Vashi^/^Ananda, 
Krodhananda, Sukhananda, Jnanananda and Bodhananda. 
Their Dhyana is given in two verses. They are those whose 
eves betray the bliss in their hearts which comes from the 
great Rasa (Maharasarasollasahr/dayanandalochana//) ; whose 
darkness (Tamas) has been cut and crushed by embracing Kula ; 
the dispellers of fear who know the meaning of all the Kula 
Tantras (1. 36-37). The Chapter closes with the instruction 
that the Guru fit to initiate a disciple in this system must be a 
Kulina and no other. The Kulma is Adhikari of all Vidyas 
and is competent to initiate in all Mantras (Dik^aprabhu//! sa 
cvatra sarvamantrasya napara/fc). The work of those who 
leave the Kulaguru is stated to be mere Abhichara. 


This chapter begins with the ablution-rites (Snana) and 
states the Shastric rules which must be followed. The devotee, 
after ablution, is directed to wear two pieces of cloth (II. 12). 
This is strictly in accordance with the rules laid down by Yogi 
Yajnavalkya. A departure from this rule constitutes, according 
to Bhr/gu, nakedness, which disqualifies for the performance of 
religious rites. The devotee is next directed to worship Shakti 
with offerings of flowers, incense, perfumed betel, and other 
desirable articles. Then follows the worship with Yantra and 
the contemplation of Oneness with the Mother. The worship 
of the S&dhaka's wife 'Nijakantam II. 30) is described with the 
details of her initiation to be given where She has previously 
been uninitiated. 

(1) Shlesbma^akakaranjancha-vilvSshvaltha-kadamhakaA 

Nimbo va/o rthmburancha dhatri chincha dasha simv'ta^. 


The rites prescribed for the night are disclosed in this 
Chapter. If the devotee worships a Parashakti, he should first 
initiate her if she happens to be uninitiated. The mantra for 
such initiation is referred to in three verses (III. 13-15). The 
food to be offered to Shakti during the Purashchara;/a-ceremony 
is enumerated at length (III. 22-26). The Shaktis worship- 
ped are to be looked upon as eight Matrzkas, and they should 
be named accordingly. The hymn to be recited in their wor- 
ship is given, which shows that each of them is to be addressed 
as one of the aspects of the Mother Herself. 

The hymn is called Kanzejapa-stotra from the fact that each 
verse addressed to each of the Matr/kas is whispered into her 
ear. In this worship the elder may bow down to the younger, 
one of superior caste to one of inferior caste, for the Shaktis 
selected for worship, are each and all manifestations of the 
Mother. The following translation and accompanying notes 
are by the General Editor. 


Obeisance to Thee O Mother ! O Devi ! 

The pure One(i) Who art Brahma (2) 

Remove by Thy mercy all obstacles (3) which beset me 

And grant me liberation (4) 


Our great Lady ! (5) Bestower of blessings ! 
Oh Devi ! Who art the Supreme Bliss (6) 
Remove by Thy mercy all obstacles which beset me 
And grant me liberation 

1. Anaghe. 

2. Brahmarupadhare i. e. Shakti of Brahmil or Br&hrm Shakti. 

3. Vighnam ; that is obstacles standing in the way of liberation. 

4. Siddhi ; the greatest of which liberation (Mokr/ja) is. The refrain runs : — 

Krzpaya hara vighnam me mama siddhing prayachchha me. 

5. Maheshi, Shakti of Mahesha or Shiva : Shaiva Shakti. 

6. Paramanandarupiwi : for She is according to Tantra one with the Supreme Brahman Who 

is Bliss Itself. 





Kauiruin !(i) beautiful Playmate of Kumftra! 
The sovereign Mistress of all Vidyas ! (2) 
Remove by Thy mercy all obstacles which beset me 
And grant me liberation 


O Devi ! Who borne by the son of Vinata (3) 
Art \ r \s/im\ (4) 

Remove by Thy mercy all obstacles which beset me 
And grant me liberation 


Oh Devi ! Bestower of blessings ! Who art Vanihi (5) 
By Whom the earth was lifted on Thy tusks (6) 
Remove by Thy mercy all obstacles which beset me 
And grant me liberation. 


O Devi ! Who art Shakra (7) 

Who art worshipped by Shakra and other Suras (8) 
Remove by Thy mercy all obstacles which beset me 
And grant me liberation. 


Chamu^a ! (9) besmeared with blood wearing a garland 

of severed heads 
Destructress of fear ! 

Remove by Thy mercy all obstacles which beset me 
And grant me liberation. 

1. Shakti of Kumara. 

2. Sarvavidyeshi ; the Vidyas are various manifestations of Mahashakti. 

3. That is the bird-king Garu^/a the vehicle of Visfom, 

4. VirAwurfipadhare, i e. VaiV/z/avi Shakti. 

5. Sh.tkti of Varaha the Boar incarnation of V\s/inu. 

6. The Varaha Avatara which succeeded the Kurmma &nd raised the earth from the waters 

in which it was submerged. 

7. Indra, the Devi is here addressed as the Shakti of Indra or Aindfi Shakti. 

8. The Devas. 

9. One of the Sanghari«T manifestations of Devi. 



Mahalaksvfcmi, ! Mahamaya ! ( r ) 

Destructress of anguish and sorrow ! 

Remove by Thy mercy all obstacles which beset me 

And grant me liberation. 


Thou art O Devi ! the Father and Mother of all (2) 
And art to us in the place of Father and Mother (3) 
One Thou art yet manifold (4) in the form of the 

Universe (5) 

Obeisance, Oh Devi ! to Thee. 

With the recitation of this hymn ends the Puja of the 
Shaktis ; the worship of at least one of whom is enjoined. Other 
rites are enumerated in the subsequent Chapters. 


The devotee should be well versed in Vai^wavachara that 
is in Bhaktimarga before he can be permitted to adopt any of 
the special rites. He should be Udarachitta/j (large minded) 
Paranind&-sahi.!f/wu/j (patient of ill said of him) and Upakara- 
rata/j (one who does good to others). He is required to recite 
his Mula-mantra if he happens to come upon a deserted temple, 
junction of four roads and such other places which are said to 
be fit for worship. He is directed also to bow unnoticed to Maha- 
kali if he sees certain birds and animals; Gr/dhra (Vulture), 
K^emangkan (Bnihma^i kite) Jambuki (She-jackal) Yama- 
dutika (raven) Kurara (osprey) Shyena (hawk, eagle or falcon) a 
crow and a black cat. He is further directed to do circumambu- 
lation (Pradak^i^a) of a corpse and the cremation ground. The 
Mantras to be recited on such occasions are noted. Obeisance 

1. Mahamohe. As such the Mother is the Destructress of Avidya and therefore as the verse 

says destructress of all the anguish and sorrow which proceed from it. 

2. Pitnmat/vmaye. 

3. Pitrimatr/vahij/ikrz'te. The earthly father and mother which are mere Angshasliaktis 

are put aside to revere Her as the real Father and Mother of all. 
4 Eke bahuvidhe. 
5. Vishvanipe. 


must also be made when he sees a black (lower, red cloth, a 
king, a prince, an elephant, a horse, a chariot, weapons of war, 
valorous man ( Virapuruy/ja) a buffalo, a Kaulika or an image 
of Malm/zamardini. If he sees a jar of wine, fish or flesh, or 
a beautiful woman, or a Devi Bhairavi, he must bow and recite 
a special mantra. The N'ilatantra gives a fuller list of objects 
to which obeisance is to be made in this way. Then comes 
the ritual prescribed for the worship of Kali in the cremation- 
ground. The Dhyana is revealed in seven verses (IV. 39-45). 
As this Devi fulfils all Siddhis She is called Dak^iwakali. 


This Chapter deals with rites which are performed for the 
development of powers enabling the devotee to draw towards 
him any Deva, lower Spirits or human being he wishes. 
Vv. 7-8 say that if anything is taken from the subject of the 
rite which belongs to him or he or she are ill-treated or deceived 
in any way the Sadhaka is fallen (Bhra^/a) and dies. Harm also 
happens to his family from such magic (Abhichara). The 
rite consists of the worship of Dak^i;mkali, The Risla of the 
Mantra is Bhairava and Chhanda is \5shn\k. The first Vija is 
the supreme Shakti (Purvang vijang parashakti). The Angga- 
nyasa is directed to be performed with the Vija coupled with 
the six long vowels. In this rite the Brahmawa Sadhaka is 
directed to substitute for wine (where this is mentioned) honey 
in a vessel of copper (v. 78) or he may perform the Kulapuja 
with Kula wine. 


This part is concerned with the method of acquiring powers 
(Vetalasiddhi) enabling the devotee to go anywhere he pleases. 
It consists in the worship of Yoganidra, Katyayani, Purweshi ; 
Cha7^i ; Kamakhya. and Dikkaravasini. The special rite of 
Sadhana which goes by the name of Shavasadhana, is described 
in this chapter (vv. 19-28). The object of this Sadhana in this 
special instance is the acquisition of the power with which the 
Chapter deals. 


This the last chapter describes the worship of Mahi^a- 
mardini which, from the large number of stone and metal 
images discovered in various places, seems to have been very 
popular at one time. The worship of Mahi^amardim appears 
to have undergone gradual changes. This is indicated by the 
Mantra as disclosed in the KulachiWama//i. The Mantra has 
been revealed in the usual Tantrika garb by the following 
verse : — 

Trailokyavijabhutante sambodhanapadang tata/i 
Sr/^/isangharakau var/rau vidya mahi^amardini 

This yields a mantra of nine syllables, namely 

Ong Mahi^amardini Svaha 

But the text (VII 5) ordains that if the Mantra and its 
Sadhana is disclosed at all, it may be disclosed to one who is 
extremely obedient to his Guru, but even then not with its Vija. 
Only eight syllables should be disclosed, thus reducing the 
mantra to 

Mahi^amardini Svaha. 

It is said that the Mantra of nine syllables should not be 
imparted but should in the Kali age be kept concealed, and 
that eight syllables alone should be disclosed with the Mantra, 
Svaha, but never with the Mantra Nama//. 

It would appear from the Sharadatilaka, a compilation by 
Lalo-imawa Deshika of the eleventh century A. D. that in his 
day the Mantra of eight syllables alone was known. The 
Mantra of ten syllables is not mentioned even by the Kula- 
chiu/amam. This may be taken to suggest that the worship of 
Mahi^mardini is of great antiquity. Originally the mantra 
was of eight, nine and ten syllables. But in course of time (at 
the date when the KulachiWama^i was .reduced into writino- 
the Mantra of ten syllables had already fallen into disuse, while 
the Mantra of nine syllables, was discontinued. In the eleventh 
century A.D. sat the date of the compilation of Sharadatilaka) 
the Mantra of eight syllables only was known. 


Another important change is noticeable in the Risk\ and 
Chhanda of this Mantra. The Risk] according to RAghava's 
Commentary on the SliAradAtilaka, is said to be Shakavatsa ; 
the Chhanda according to it is Prakr/'ti. The Commentator also 
notices that in his day according to some the Rish'\ was also 
said to be M ArkaWeya. But the KulachiVAmawi (VII. 11) 
distinctly says that the Risk'x is Narad a and the Chhanda is 
Gayatri. It is noticeable that the A'is/n and Chhanda of the 
Mantra for the worship of DitrgA. are Nfirada and Gayatri. 
May it be that the worship of Mahi^amardini was gradually 
sought to be cast into the same form as the worship of Durga ? 
This seems highly probable from another circumstance that 
according to the Sharadatilaka-/ika of Raghava Bha//a, the 
PiMapuja. should be performed as ordained for the worship of 

The image of Mahi^amardini is however different from 
that of of Durga. MahuV/amardini according to Kulachurt&ma/zi 
(VII 13) has eight hands holding on the right side Chakra 
(discus) Kha</ga (sacrificial sword), Va#a (arrow), Shula (trident), 
and on the left side Khart'ga, Charma (shield), Dhanu (bow) and 
Tarjani-mudra {vide post). The Devi is said to be of black colour, 
wearing yellow cloth, and is placed on the body of a black 

This Dhyana does not exactly correspond with the one 
which is noted in the Sharadatilaka. According to it, the Devi 
holds in Her hands Chakra, Shangkha (conch shell), Kr/pa;/a 
(sword) Khe/aka (club). V&«a, Karmuka (bow). Shula and 
Tarjani-mudra. The Devi who is said to be of the colour of 
Gariu/a-stone (emerald) and bedecked with the crescent moon 
is described as sitting on the head of the buffalo. 

In the Hymn incorporated with the text of the KulachtWa- 
\\r&n\ (VII 33) the Devi is said to be black of colour, resem- 
bling crushed antimony and is described as holding Chakra, 
Dara, (Shangkha), Kartr/ka (small sword), Khe/a (club), VAxa, 
Dhanu, Trishula and Abhaya-mudra. So far as this Mudra is 
concerned, Raghava cites an authority to show that Tarjani- 
mudra is the same as the Abhaya-mudra. It appears from the 
Tantrasara that the Devi is to be worshipped now in this form. 

The KulachWamam gives no Shangkha, or Khe/aka or 
Kartr/ka. It has instead two Kha^gas and Charma. The 
SliAradAtilaka mentions no Charma or double sword. It intro- 
duces Shangkha and Khe/aka. The Hymn makes a further 



departure by changing the Kha^ga into Kartr/ka, This is 
exactly what appears to have been in vogue when the Tantra- 
sara came to be compiled about 400 years ago. The Hymn 
therefore appears to be of a date later than this. 

While the images appear to have changed in this way, the 
mode of worship has remained pretty fairly the same. The 
details are given with a view to help the reader to follow the 

The worship of Mahisiamardini is in general performed in 
the usual Tantrika way. The text only notices the points of 
difference which constitute its special features. The most 
noticeable of these is the Angganyasa which usually embraces 
six Anggas. In the case of the worship of Mahi^amardini the 
text (VII 15-17) mentions only five Anggas. The SharadAtilaka 
(XI 25) says that in this worship Nyasa is made only upon five 
Anggas, leaving out the Nyasa of the eyes. The Dhyana is 
given in verses 12-14. The Yantra is composed of a lotus of 
eight petals, in each of which (VII 18) eight Devis are wor- 
shipped, described generally as Durga and others (Durgadya). 
Their names are given in the Sharadfitilaka (XI 29) as Durga, 
Varavaraim, Arya, Kanakaprabha, Kr/ttika, Abhayaprada, 
Kanya and Surupa. They are worshipped with the long- 
vowels a, \, u, H, IH, ai, au and a/i. Thus : — Ang Durgayai 
nama/; ; Ing Varavar^inyai nama/i ; Ong Aryfiyai nama// ; 7?mg 
Kanakaprabhayai nama// ; Lring Kmtikayai nama/; ; Aing 
Abhayapradayai nama/i ; Aung Kanyayai namai ; A/i Surupayai 
nama/^. The Sharadatilaka-/ika of Raghava Bha//a says that in 
selecting the long vowels H, Irl should be rejected as neuter 
vowels. The Tantrasara, however, gives the long vowels as a, 1, 
ft, ?% Irt, ai, au, -dk. The weapons are also to be worshipped along 
with the consonants beginning with ya or in other words the 
consonants beginning with ya, that is ya, ra, la, va, sha, ska, sa, 
and ha are selected. 

The hymn to Mahi^amardini incorporated in the Kulachu- 
^amam is recited by Bhairava. The text of this hymn appears 
to have grown defective in course of time. Reference had 
accordingly to be made not only to the printed edition but to 
Ms. copies of the Tantrasara in which it is quoted. One Ms. 
dated 1604 Shaka year found in the district of Mymensing by 
the travelling Pandit of the Varendra Research Society, was of 
great, help in restoring the correct reading. The text, as 
printed herein may, therefore, be taken as fairly accurate. From 
the hymn ( Vv 22-35 ) lt appears that whilst the worship of 


Vi.s//7/u nnil Shiva was . popular, and their votaries were ap- 
plauded the Kuhtchara was blamed. A translation of this 
hymn in FCnglish was printed in the volume entitled "Hymns to 
the Goddess" by A. & E. Avalon. As was there pointed out 
the text of the Tantrasara used for this translation was in parts 
corrupt and unintellcgiblc and in others of doubtful meaning. 
A further translation with commentary has therefore been here 
made by A. Avalon of the text as it has now been revised : 
and the opportunity has been availed of to correct some errors. 
The following translation and accompanying notes are by the 
General Editor. 


O Chiindl ! (2) 

By Whom the act of the wicked and formidable Asura(3) 

was shattered. 

Do Thou wander in my heart. 

Destroy my selfishness and the calamities which deeply 

pierce me, 

Arising from the mass of malice and fears (which assail me), 
So that, free from danger, 

And protected by the lotus cluster of Thy feet, 
My swan-like(4) mind may swim and rejoice in the Ocean 

of Bliss. 


What fear of his enemies has he who worships Thee ? 
The Devas who worship Thy feet 
Having abandoned the form of Nrz'singha(5) 
Whose towering mane rivals in splendour and height 

towering Mount Sumeru, 

(0 A title of the Shakti nf Shiva us the powerful victrix of demons. She is Mahuvfo- 
mardini, as the slayer of Mahij7;a. The Daitya Shumbha attacked Her in the form of a 
buffalo (Mahi.r/;a} ; see Chawflfi. 

(2) A form of the Devi assumed for the destruction of the Daitya Chawtfa, and who assisted 
in the destruction of the demon Raktavija ; see (Marka;/dfeya F'urawa). 

(3) Mahij-/;a. 

(4) Manohangsa ; the Hangsa is variously described as a swan, gander, and flamingo. 

(5) The Man-lion incarnation (Avatara) of \ r \:/ina, in which He destroyed the Daitya 
Hirawyakashipu, father of His devotee l'rahl&da. 


1 7 

And whose fingers are outstretched to tear (the breast of ) 

H ira«yakashipu( i ) 
Now worship (the lion)(2) the enemy of the elephant^) 
Server of Thy feet which destroy the bonds of the Pashu. 


O Chawflfi ! when the syllables, the letters of which speak 

of Thee, 

Reach the ear, then Brahma and other Devas 
Sing" the truth, touching Puru^a and Prakr/ti(/j.). 

0 Devi ! be today gracious to me, 

Devoted as I am to the kissing of Thy sacred lotus feet, 
The one and only glittering abode of the essence of the 
nectar of all Devatas. 


If, because of my following Your way of Kula(5), 

1 suffer reproach, better is it that I shall thus be without 


Let me not have that which comes of the worship of 

Keshava(6) and Kaushika(7) ! 
Rather, O Mother ! let my heart rest in meditation on Thy 

lotus feet, 

Worshipped by Brahma, Hari(8), and the Enemy of Smara(c)) 
By the Eater of oblations(io) and the Enemy of the 

Daitya (i i). 

(1) The Avat&ra is generally represented with the King of the Dailyas accrnss His knees, 
tearing asunder with 1 1 is hands and claws the lattcr's belly. See note 5, p. 16. 

(2) Which accompanies the Devi as Durga. After the destruction of Hirawyakashipu, 
Vishm's wrath was not appeased. The world trembled, fearing what He might do. The 
Devas asked the help of Shiva, who assumed the Sharabha form — that of a lion with wings and 
eight feet — who caught up Vis/tmi into the air and held him there until he had become powerless. 
The lion then went to the feet of DurgS, whom he accompanies. 

(3) Kari the elephant form subsequently assumed by the Asura Mahi^a. KarivairT==enemy 
of elephant = lion. 

(4) Shiva and Shakti ; the "Male" and "Female" from whose union springs the Universe. 

(5) That is, Kulachara, one of the divisions of TAntrik worshippers, who, the verse says, 
are misunderstood, and therefore subject of reproach ; and which is contrasted in the next line 
but one with the more popular and conventional worship of Keshava and Kausln'ka. 

(6) VisAmx. (7) Imlra. (8) Yis/uta. 

(9) Smara, the God of Love ; Shiva, who slew him, is his "enemy." 

(10) That is Fire. 

(11) Daityari : usually an epithet of Shrt Krishna., but ;is Hari has already been mentioned 
possibly the reference may be to Indra. According to Mcdini, DaitySri - Devata 



O Mother ! If I be engaged in the constant contemplation 

of Thy lotus feet, 
Then what is there which Siddhas have(i) which I have not 
May Thy lotus Feet be ever present to my blissful mind(2) 
Thy feet from which exceeding mercy flows ! 
() propitious Mother! do Thou forgive me. 


Verily and without doubt, even the Lord of Bhfttas(3) 

would have pcrished(4) 
Maddened as He was with the joy of the embrace of (Thee 

Who art) His own self(5) 
Had He not been freshened by the lotus fragrance of Thy 


Bathed in the honey which flows within 
From the union of Shiva and Shakti(6). 

O Mother ! let the stream of heavy showers of holy 

devotion towards Thee 

Be ever shed upon me, 

Struggling and drowning^), alas ! as I am in the endless 

Ocean of Illusion 

(i} Siddhaspada. 

(2) This "mind" has a qualifying adjective viz : — " Aki/zatasampadi"' " of .uninterrupted 
happiness." It is so hecause the Devi is dancing there. 

(3) Shiva is Bhuteshvara or Bhfitanatha. Bhuta, which in a general sense means "beings," 
specifically refers to the Spirits by whom Shiva is surrounded, and of whom He is Master. 

(4) It is by the Devi's aid that Shiva is Tarameshvara, for without Shakti He is nothing, and 
without Her life-giving energy and support cannot exist. As the Kubjika Tantra says : "With- 
out their Shaktis the husbands are but Preta (inert corpses)." So also the Jnanar«ava : "O 
beloved, pure Sadashiva, without Shakti is without motion like a corpse, for without Shakti 
He can do nothing." 

(5) Svatmanam parirabhya. Literally, having embraced Himself. The Devi is, however, 
in a dualistic sense, His sacred half, and in reality one with Him and his own self ( see Maha- 
nirvawa Tantra, Chap. I). Cf. Atmaratipriya/z (.SVza/chakra p. 64). 

(6) Daivadvichyutachandrachandanarasapragalbhyagarbhasravat. The meaning is not clear 
but Chandra ( moon ) seems to stand for the Vija of Shiva (which it also means) : and 
Chandanarasa (liquid sandal flow) issues from Devi. Therefore the union of Shiva and Shakti in 
the Sahasrara appears to be indicated. 

(7) Mohajaladhi-vyahara-viddhu, lit : "pierced by the mockery of the ocean of illusion." 



Without taste of the water of the Bliss of Brahman 
Which devotion dispels the weight of anguish from numbers 

of Devas. 


May the glory of Thy feet dark as a rainladen cloud, 
Be ever in my heart 

Dispelling by its lustre as of ten million suns 

The darkness which overspreads my mind. 

From its glittering womb were born the three Devatas, 

Who create, maintain, and destroy the world, 

Whose substance is pure consciousness and bliss. 


May(i) Devi Durga Who gives victory and happiness 
Dispeller of fear, Victrix of fortresses and ill-fortune 
Who had power to destroy the proud enemies of the 


And Who strikes terror into the hearts of thousands (of 
Ever conquer ! Her foes) 

She it was Who, having severed the head of the Asura 


Crushed and killed under Her feet him who assumed the 

form of a buffalo 
Now bellowing, now charging, and again retreating 
And from whose mouth the Asura issued. 


In the red ocean vast and surging 

Danced the great shields weapons and streamers^) of the 


(An ocean) clouded by the flight of discus 
And the arrows of the heaving multitude of soldiers 
There lay the heads of the proud and wicked Asuras 
Broken and cut to pieces, tossed about by the storm of 


(The sight of which) sharpened the thirst and hunger of 

the birds of carrion. 

) See M ilrkawafeyn. Chiuidi vv. 38, 39. 
) Chdniata. 

I 1 

I mc(litalc( 1 ) upon Devi Mahi^amardim, 

Rushing in frenzy now here, now there on that wondrous 

field of battle (for the slaughter of the enemies) 
Attended by eight companion Mftl/'«j(2) 

And on the Mantra and Badhu Vija(3) m tnc ' olu - s °f ^i^ rnl 


Within the two horns of the fierce and terrible restless and 

challenging head 
Bent low and slanting^) of the maddened buffalo. 

I 2 

Let the Sadhaka meditate on the dark Shiva 


Holding in Her hands discus, lance, axe, shield, arrow, 

bow, and trident, 
Making- the gesture(6) which dispels fear ; 
Her mass of hair is like a bank of cloud entwined up on 

Her head, 

Her face most formidable awes (Her foes) 
Making even the defiant falter 
Her laugh is loud and terrible. 


O Devi ! such as in this manner 

Meditate upon this Thy faultless form . 

Or upon Thee as Durga or other form of Thine 

Worshipped by Indra and other Devas, 

To them it is given to attack the cities of their foes, 

And conquering their enemies, to gain a kingdom ; 

They too, acquire the nectar of the knowledge of poesy, 

And power to arrest, banish, and slay(7). 

(1) Reading Smare for \ r are in text. 

(2) The Devisso called vide ante the Kar«ejapa-Stotra. 

{3) String the Mantra may he said with this or the Tara (Ong) Maya (llring) Kama (Kling) 
or Vagbhava Vija (Aing). 

(4) On the petals are the. eight syllables Marm/zmardini svaha : "Salutation to the Devi 
slayer of Manila" 

(5) The buffalo when charging puts its head askew. The Mantra is thought of as placed 
between the two horns. 

(6) The Abhayamudra. 

(7) Stambhanam, Uchcha/anam. and Mara/zam ; three ol the Tantrik ■SV/a/karma. 



Whosoever reads or hears this Hymn 
Made by me in rapt meditation upon Thy lotus feet, 
Wherein is said Thy Kula worship and Mantra in hidden 

fonn( 1 ) 

In the palms of the hands of all such 

Are forthwith wealth, fulfilment of desire and liberation. 

O Mother ! salutation to Thee ! 

May Thou conquer ! 

In the concluding portion of this Chapter the Devi says that 
Her chief forms are represented by Mahi^amardini, Kali, and 
Tripurabhairavi, the last being - considered the primary mani- 
festation (VII. 37). This work inculcates the worship of Yog- 
inis as a part of Kula- worship, on Kula-days (Kulavara) and 
Kula-tithis, specially on the 14th day of the moon. 

[The KulavAras have been described in the Yamalas from 
which they have been quoted in the Tantrasara as follows 
" Tuesday and Friday are Kula days while Wesdnesday is both 
Kula and Aktila, the rest being all Akula "(2) Again all Tithis 
with an uneven number are Akula ; with an even number Kula 
with the exception of the second, sixth and tenth which are 
both Kula and Akula. ](3) 

The evening rite, consisting in the offering of food to jackals, 
is described at length. The Devi towards the end says " Thou 
art the Guru of all the Tantras and neither I nor Han. There- 
fore Thou art the Revealer of the Tantras. I entered into Thy 
body ( as Shakti ) and thereby Thou didst become the Lord 
( Prabhu ). There is none but Myself who is the Mother to 
create ( Karyyavibhavini ) (4) and therefore it is when creation 

(1) The Mantra Mahi.r/zamardinl svaha may be spelt out from the first six verses from the 
lollowing words which respectively commence them. Mochchitte (.Ma) Ilitva (Hi) Cha//«Ti 
tadvij/zayantara (57/ a) Manninda (,Ma) Nirddij///o'smi (Rclini) Svatmanam and not atmanam as 
given in the text (Sva) and Ilaha (Ha). 

(2) Ravichandrau guru// saurish chattvarashchakula niata// 
Bhaumashukrau kulakhyau tn budhavara// kulaknla//. See Pa /a I a VII. 38. 

(3) Dvitiya dashami sha.r/z//zi kulakulamudahr/'tam 

Vix/zamashchakula/z sarva/z shcr/zashcha tithaya/z kula/z 
Similarly all Nakj/zatras with an even number are Kula : 
Varu/zardrabhijinnuilang kulakulamudahr/tam 
Kulani samadlm/z;/yani shcsV/aiihany akulani cha. 
(4) Tliat is She has the disposition to act or to carry out what He wills. She alone has 
Kartr/'ttva lor the Father as efficient cause does not act, but the Mother in whose womb the 
seed of the world is sown alone does so 


takes place that sonship is in Thee. Thou alone art the Father 
who wills what I do ( KAryyavibhavaka ) and none else. 

Mang vina janani kapi naiva karyyavibhavini 
Av.iA karyye samutpanne putratvang tvayi vartate 
Tvang vina. janaka/z ko'pi naiva karyya-vibhavaka/z 
Atastvameva janako nastyanyo'pi kathanchana 

"At times Thou art the father ; at others the son ; at times 
Thou art the Guru ; at others the disciple. By the union of Shiva 
and Shukti creation comes ( Shivashakti-samnyogAt jayate S7-z- 
.sV/Vikalpana ). As all in this universe is both Shiva and Shakti 
( Shivashaktimaya ) therefore, Oh Maheshvara ! Thou art in 
every place and I am in every place. Thou art in all and I am 
in all." 

Varendra Research Samiti, Rajshahi, 
August 191 5. 

A. K. Maitra. 

*Nrrafc qt*T*fa wf^cTO I 


Printed by Upendra Natba Chakravarti, 
No. 5, Nandakumab Chaudhury's 2nd Lane, Calcutta. 

S^r^*m3^;rm ircw i ?ra f V- 



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